An overview of the english revolution that began in england in 1642

Second english civil war

Fairfax soon drove the enemy into Colchester , but his first attack on the town met with a repulse and he had to settle down to a long siege. The conflict was not a 'civil war', but 'the English Revolution', because it was the time when the capitalist middle class seized power in England. For a monarch, Parliament's most indispensable power was its ability to raise tax revenues far in excess of all other sources of revenue at the Crown's disposal. The Church throughout the Middle Ages, and down to the seventeenth century, was something very different from what we call a Church to-day. Reaching Berwick on the Scottish border, he encamped and soon entered into negotiations with with the Scots. This inclusion of inland towns was construed as a new tax without parliamentary authorization. These carried matchlock muskets, an inaccurate weapon which nevertheless could be lethal at a range of up to yards. Furious, Charles precipitately dissolved the Short Parliament.

Meanwhile the Royalist infantry had some success over parliament. This rebellion derived, on the one hand, from long-term social, religious, and economic causes namely tenurial insecurity, economic instability, indebtedness, and a desire to have the Roman Catholic Church restored to its pre- Reformation position and, on the other hand, from short-term political factors that triggered the outbreak of violence.

Lord Henry Wilmot was the Royalist commander who led a force to assist Hopton.

An overview of the english revolution that began in england in 1642

Once properly organised and regularly paid, with an efficient commissariat and technical staff, with Cromwell, the dispensable leader, reappointed to his command, the New Model Army advanced rapidly to victory and the Royalists were decisively routed at Naseby For God is not a God of sedition and confusion, but of order and of peace.

Though the Royalists won early victories, the Parliamentarians ultimately triumphed.

English civil war facts

Such were the difficulties the bourgeoisie experienced even at the beginning of its career; it needed the people and yet feared them, and wanted to keep the monarchy as a check against democracy — if only Charles I would act as they wanted him to, as Charles II, by and large, later did. So the changes had no revolutionary effect on -society as a whole. Therefore, parliament and the people were not maintained. But the fact that men spoke and wrote in religious language should not prevent us realising that there is a social content behind what are apparently purely theological ideas. His means of raising English revenue without an English Parliament fell critically short of achieving this. This explanation says that the Parliamentary armies were fighting for the liberty of the individual and his rights in law against a tyrannical Government that threw him into prison without trial by jury, taxed him without asking his consent, billeted soldiers in his house, robbed him of his property, and attempted to destroy his cherished Parliamentary institutions. In , at the head of an army, Cromwell marched into Parliament and dismissed the members. These questions are not usually very satisfactorily answered in the text-books. This evidence was obtained from Vane's father, Henry Vane the Elder , a member of the King's Privy council, who refused to confirm it in Parliament out of loyalty to Charles. All that is true. The Parliamentarian New Model Army then took to the field concentrating mainly on the Royalist infantry. And most of the tenants of these gentlemen, and also most of the poorest of the people, whom the others call the rabble, did follow the gentry and were for the King. In , news reached London that the Catholics were revolting. Rapidly became the city occur mines, factories and plants. On one occasion the Lieutenant of the Tower was severely reprimanded for allowing air from an open window to reach this dangerous prisoner.

There was Archbishop Laud in London. As Charles shared his father's position on the power of the crown James had described kings as "little gods on Earth", chosen by God to rule in accordance with the doctrine of the " Divine Right of Kings "the suspicions of the Parliamentarians had some justification.

english civil war causes

For prices were going up. In fact, until aboutthe monarchy had many interests in common with those of the bourgeoisie in town and country — in the struggle against Spain, against the international Catholic Church, against rival noble houses disputing supreme control with the House of Tudor and ruining the country with their private wars, Hence the collaboration in Parliament between monarchy, gentry and bourgeoisie.

who won the english civil war
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The English Revolution