We assume that residents and mutants who provide parental care experience the same baseline conditions i. It has been suggested, though not without controversy, that paternal care is the ancestral form of parental care in birds.
Coecilians Ichthyophis and Hypogeophis are oviparous, lay eggs in burrows in damp soil and coil round them until they hatch. In many species, offspring of malnourished mothers who are provisioned less have reduced growth rates Wells and references therein.
Parents protect the eggs and early developmental stages in two ways. It is developed out of the remnant of the egg envelop and integumentary secretion.
Similarly, the male Owl monkey acts as the main caregiver and is crucial to the survival of his offspring. They hatch end directly develop into larvae.
Leaf nest: In Phyllomedusa Fig. Thus, by definition, egg death rate is assumed to decrease as initial investment in eggs increases. The male place the eggs on the back of the female where each egg sinks into a small pit. Such a benefit could act alone or in combination with the other general benefits described previously.
Embryonic development occurs within the pits and physiological exchanges takes place between the females and the larva.